By Hunter Allen
Training with a power meter has become the gold standard for cyclists looking to improve their performance. While heart rate, speed, and perceived exertion are valuable metrics, power is the most accurate and objective way to measure your effort on the bike. As a coach and pioneer in the field of power-based training, I’ve worked with countless athletes to help them understand the basics of training with a power meter.
In this article, I’ll cover the fundamentals of power-based training, including the benefits of using a power meter, how to set your training zones, and how to use power data to plan and how to use power data to guide your training.
A power meter is a device that measures the power output of a cyclist in watts. Power meters can be built into the pedals, crankset, hub, or chainring, and they use strain gauges or accelerometers to measure the force applied to the pedals, cranks or wheel.
Power meter pedals are a more precise and objective measure of a cyclist's effort than heart rate or perceived exertion. Heart rate can be affected by factors like stress, hydration, and temperature, while perceived exertion can be subjective and influenced by motivation and fatigue. Power, on the other hand, is a direct measure of the work a cyclist is doing and can be used to compare efforts across different rides and riders.
Once your power meter is connected to your bike computer and zeroed, you can start using power data to guide your training.
Step 1: Finding your Functional Threshold Power (FTP)
FTP is the maximum power that a cyclist can sustain for one hour. It is a key metric for training because it represents the upper limit of a cyclist's aerobic endurance. To determine your FTP, you should read the article here about finding your FTP.
After your FTP testing, you can set set training zones and measure progress over time.
Step 2: Determine your Training Zones
Training zones are a range of power outputs that correspond to different levels of effort and physiological responses. There are several different systems for defining training zones, but one of the most common is the seven-zone system developped by Dr. Andy Coggan.
Step 3: Structure Your Training
Structuring your training is critical for achieving your training goals. A well-structured training plan involves balancing different types of workouts and intensities to achieve the desired training adaptations.
Endurance workouts are long, steady rides that develop aerobic capacity and endurance. These workouts are typically done in Zone 2 and are the foundation of a cyclist's training.
Tempo workouts are moderate-intensity rides that improve lactate threshold and the ability to sustain high-intensity efforts for longer periods. These workouts are typically done in Zone 3.
Interval workouts are short, high-intensity efforts that improve power output and anaerobic capacity. These workouts are typically done in Zones 4-6 and include workouts such as 30/30s, 2x20s, and Micro-bursts. These workouts are intense and should be done sparingly.
Step 4: Use Key Workouts
Key workouts are critical workouts that target specific training adaptations. These workouts are typically done once or twice a week and should be a focus of your training plan.
One key workout is the Sweet-spot workout. The “Sweet-spot” is 88-93% of your FTP and is just below your FTP. You receive a lot of “Training bang for your buck” so to speak. You can maintain this intensity for a much longer time and it is “doable”. Strive to do 3 x 20 minute efforts at Sweet-Spot.
Step 5. Track Your Progress
Tracking your progress is essential for understanding the effectiveness of your training program. Power meters provide a wealth of data that can be used to track progress and make adjustments to your training.
One way to track progress is to analyze your power data after each ride. This allows you to see how your power output is changing over time and identify areas where you need to focus your training. We use software like TrainingPeaks in order to analyze our downloaded power data and to ensure improvement over time, along with ensuring a proper peak.
Hunter Allen has FTP online training programs available at FTP Archives - Shop Peaks Coaching Group.
He is the co-author of “Training and Racing with a Power Meter”, “Cutting Edge Cycling” and “Triathlon Training with Power”.
They are available at www.shoppeaks.com.
You can contact Hunter directly at www.PeaksCoachingGroup.com for personal coaching and camps